Biography: Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) translate electric, magnetic or metabolic brain activity into control signals of computers, machines or robots. While clinical applications of BMIs have focused on restoration of communication or movements in severe paralysis, more recent work suggests that repeated use of BMIs can result in functional and structural plasticity of neural circuits. It was shown that such neuroplasticity can facilitate recovery after stroke or spinal cord injuries, but also affect symptoms of various psychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia or addiction. To induce neuroplasticity and behavioral effects, however, a high number of training sessions are required presently. The
combination of BMIs with transcranial electric or magnetic stimulation that adapts to the ongoing brain states promises to improve the efficacy of BMI training. Besides giving an overview of the current state-of-the-art, perspectives and challenges for applying such approach in the treatment of psychiatric disorders will be discussed.